DUBLIN Burmese authorities have increased restrictions on Christian activity in the capital city of Rangoon and surrounding areas, including the closure of several churches, Compass Direct News reported Jan. 21.
Orders issued on Jan. 5 already had forced many Christians meeting in residential homes or apartments to cease gathering for worship. The following week, officials ordered several major Rangoon churches, including Wather Hope Church, Emmanuel Church and the Assemblies of God Church, to cease holding services. Authorities also continued enforcing the Jan. 5 ban on meetings held in unauthorized facilities.
(A military dictatorship has ruled Burma since 1962. Following the takeover, the government renamed Burma as the Union of Myanmar and the capital city as Yangon, but many news agencies and government bodies continue to use the original names.)
Burmese authorities stopped issuing permits for land purchase or the construction of new churches in the late 1990s, leading many Burmese Christians to conduct services in rented apartments or office buildings, according to the Burmese news agency Mizzima.
The Kyauktada Township Peace and Development Council on Jan. 5 invited pastors from more than 100 Rangoon churches to a meeting where they were told to sign documents pledging to cease operation of their churches. About 50 pastors attended, Mizzima reported.
The documents threatened punishment, including potential jail terms and the sealing of church facilities, for pastors who refused to obey the closure orders.
Another local online news source, the Democratic Voice of Burma, claimed officials from the Ministry of Religious Affairs had summoned the owners of buildings where churches met and ordered them not to rent their properties to religious groups.
Some local Christians and international observers say the crackdown is related to Christian involvement in relief efforts for the victims of Cyclone Nargis, which hit Burma in May 2008.
Despite widespread devastation and loss of life, Burma's reclusive government initially banned foreign aid but finally accepted it on condition that Burmese officials would distribute it. Christians, however, had responded immediately to the crisis, gathering relief supplies and transporting them to the Irrawaddy Delta region. Police or army officials stopped some groups but many were allowed to proceed. At least one such group told Compass that officials likely feared the conversion of Buddhists who accepted aid from Christians.
Burma's military junta promotes Buddhism at the expense of other minority religions, according to Hudson Institute's 2008 Religious Freedom in the World analysis. The country's population is 82 percent Buddhist, 9 percent Christian and 4 percent Muslim, with traditional ethnic, Chinese and Hindu religions accounting for the rest. Burma ranks high on lists of religious and human rights violators at several watch organizations, including the U.S. State Department, Human Rights Watch, Freedom House and Open Doors.
Documents declaring the government's intention to "stamp out" Christianity have circulated for some time. One human rights organization, Christian Solidarity Worldwide, drew attention to one such document in a 2007 report titled, "Carrying the Cross: The military regime's campaign of restriction, discrimination and persecution against Christians in Burma." The report summarized a 17-point document allegedly produced by an organization affiliated with the Ministry of Religious Affairs titled, "Program to Destroy the Christian Religion in Burma." The first point in this document declared, "There shall be no home where the Christian religion is practiced."
Burmese generals rejected 1988 elections showing the opposing National League for Democracy clearly in the majority. The generals used military force to cement their power throughout Burma. A similar show of force met hundreds of Buddhist monks who initiated mass anti-government protest rallies on the streets of Rangoon in September 2007.
While almost all Burmese citizens suffer under the regime, Christians often are singled out for specific attack or repression because of their perceived connections with the West.
Reports from various mission groups suggest Christianity is flourishing under the regime, but believers must be creative with their worship particularly in rural areas. In reports confirmed by Compass, Christians in one state began photocopying Bibles to overcome restrictions on religious publications. Others baptized new Christians during the annual water festival, where citizens douse each other with buckets of water, ceremonially washing away the "sins" of the past year.
Rangoon residents say a much heavier security presence has been evident in the city since early January, when political activists began distributing anti-government leaflets, The Irrawaddy newspaper reported on Jan. 13. The leaflet drops may have contributed to the current crackdown on church gatherings, as generals suspect all organized groups of having a political agenda.
At a graduation of military students in Rangoon on Jan. 9, Vice-Senior Gen. Maung Aye, who is commander-in-chief of the army and deputy commander-in-chief of defense services, warned students to steadfastly uphold the country's "Three Main National Causes" to prevent "recurrences of past bitter experiences." The causes were listed as non-disintegration of the Union of Myanmar, non-disintegration of national solidarity and perpetuation of sovereignty.
Compass Direct News, based in Santa Ana, Calif., provides reports on Christians worldwide who are persecuted for their faith. Used by permission.